地理学专场
地理学(地图学与地理信息系统)
2014年04月02日

  一、引言

  地理信息系统(GIS)启蒙于20世纪60年代,是一门获取、处理和分析地理空间信息的科学技术领域,为跨越了地理科学、测绘科学、信息科学等学科领域的交叉学科。作为GIS的重要学科基础的地图学,既是一门有着几乎和世界文化同样悠久历史的古老科学,又是一门永远充满生机与活力的科学。

  在我国的学科布局中,特别是地理科学的学科布局中,将地图学与地理信息系统设置为地理学的二级学科。本报告重点介绍近两年来我国地图学与地理信息系统的研究进展与整体状况,部分内容适当概述为近五年的进展。鉴于地图学与地理信息系统之间相互交叉融合与渗透,本报告紧密将二者视为一个学科的两个方面来共同分析和介绍。

  二、本学科近两年的最新研究进展

  我国地图学与地理信息系统的研究和发展是在国家科技计划和市场需求双重动力的推动下成长起来的。在国家自然科学基金委员会、中国科学院、教育部等部门的支持下,我国地理信息科学的基础理论研究取得了较大的发展,在地理空间采样与内插、地理格网系统分析等方面,取得了原创性成果;在科技部、发改委、中国科学院等部门的支持下,我国自主知识产权的地理信息系统基础软件发展良好,国产化软件平台技术不断提高,品牌GIS软件得到市场的认同;在各行业和部门的推动和带动下,我国地理信息系统的应用不断深化,应用领域不断拓展,地理信息产业蓬勃发展;全国GIS的高等教育规模大,学科面广,为科学研究和产业发展提供了一大批专业人才。

  (一)地理信息表达与组织管理

  地理信息的表达与数据模型是地理信息系统的基础研究问题。近两年最为突出的是三维空间的表达与数据模型研究,特别是朱庆研究团队和闾国年研究团队的工作。刘刚等提出了一种兼顾空间关系与语义关系的地上下一体化的三维空间数据库模型,支持文件系统与数据库管理系统及其并行管理系统等多种存储环境。在一般三维空间数据模型研究的基础上,袁林旺等等将共形几何代数引入GIS三维空间数据模型研究,利用共形几何代数多维表达的统一性、几何意义的明确性及运算的坐标无关性等优势,构建了基于其上的GIS三维空间数据模型,有效解决了空间数据模型多维表达与分析框架不统一的问题,形成新的思路。

  有效地组织和管理海量、非结构化的地理空间信息是GIS研究的基础性方向。陈荣国及团队等在系统解析关系数据库管理系统基础上,提出了在关系空间数据库内核中拓展空间数据模型的方式,解决了高可信空间数据库系统空间类型定义、空间数据存储、空间索引、空间算子、空间事务、空间查询优化、空间分布式处理以及空间安全访问八大关键核心技术问题,研制成功了我国首款高安全级地理空间数据库管理系统BeyonDB。吴立新等提出了地球系统空间格网(ESSG)的概念和构建普适性ESSG的八项基本要求,并基于球体退化八叉树格网(SDOG)设计并实现了一种满足八项基本要求的SDOG-ESSG模型。

  (二)地理信息分析与模拟

  地理模拟系统是在计算机软、硬件支持下,通过自下而上的虚拟模拟实验,对复杂系统进行模拟、预测、优化和显示的技术。黎夏等在对地理模拟系统研究的基础上,构建了可以对地理格局进行模拟、预测、优化分析的地理模拟优化系统(GeoSOS)平台。

  在数字地形分析方面,汤国安及其团队提出地形纹理等新概念,探讨了地形指数的尺度效应与尺度推演、数字高程模型的地形信息量、地形尺度相似性度量方法等,构建了基于并行计算的分析平台。

  空间采样与内插是GIS的基本的科学问题之一。王劲峰等发展并初步建立了针对异质陆表的空间抽样理论体系,提出了揭示陆表类型、抽样方案和统计推断三者交互作用的空间抽样Trinity原理,包括异质表面抽样MSN模型、有偏样点纠正B-SHADE模型、单点推断区域的SPA模型和异质表面插值的Sandwich模型。

  针对空间数据内插与建模这一经典的问题,岳天祥及其团队根据曲面论基本定理,结合高斯-科达齐方程,对所模拟的区域进行均匀正交剖分建立数值方程,构建了高精度曲面建模理论(HASM)。

  海洋地理信息建模和分析是海洋地理信息系统的核心内容。周成虎、苏奋振等根据海洋数据的时空特性,提出了基于过程对象分级抽象的时空过程建模思路,设计了基于栅格的时空层次聚合模型,并成功应用于海洋时空过程数据库系统和分析。

  在空间数据挖掘与知识发现领域,裴韬、周成虎等系统建立了针对任意时空点过程数据实施多尺度分解的理论模型和方法,王树良等提出数据场的概念及其空间数据挖掘方法,出版了系列专著。

  (三)地图与地理信息可视化

  地图自适应可视化是当前地图研究的热点。王英杰、陈毓芬、艾廷华等探索了地图自适应可视化的原理,提出了可变比例尺设计和地图内容表达和细节层次配置在小屏幕和导航应用中的自适应可视化方法,研发了网络自适应制图软件等。

  虚拟地理环境旨在实现地理环境的模拟分析与表达,改变传统的空间知识表达与获取方式。龚建华、林珲、游雄等提出了虚拟地理环境研究的一个理论研究框架,研制虚拟战场分析系统等;闾国年等探讨了面向地理分析的虚拟地理环境的整体框架与结构功能,其分为数据环境、建模环境、表达环境与协同环境四个子环境;李德仁、龚键雅等从基本原理、技术内涵及表现形式三方面,提出基于图形与影像信息的地球空间信息三维维可视化技术,并研发大型三维可视化软件GeoGlobal。

  在地图的新概念、新方法方面,王光霞等开展了全息地图研究,并对室内地图展开示范试验。高俊等提出了面向智能地理空间应用的机器地图的概念,并指出在三元空间世界的地图研究。

  (四)地理信息系统技术与软件

  基础软件和应用软件是支撑地理信息系统应用和产业化发展的重要基础,也是GIS发展的基石。自1987年第一套国际GIS软件ArcInfo引进中国以来,我国的地理信息系统技术得到了快速发展,国产GIS软件走过了引进、消化、吸收和再创新的发展道路,以SuperMap、MapGIS、GeoBeans、GeoGlobe等为代表的国产GIS基础软件和应用软件已经形成品牌,在国土资源、测绘、环保、基础设施管理等行业与部门得到广泛的应用,并逐步进入国际市场。国产GIS平台软件的成功研发和广泛应用,提升了我国GIS软件研发和应用水平,并进入国际先进行列。

  (五)地理信息服务与应用

  我国资源与环境信息系统的研究是地理信息系统应用最早的领域,也是发展相对成熟的领域。全国水资源信息系统、全国土壤环境质量信息系统、全国国土资源“一张图”工程等均进入了业务化运行服务的阶段。地理国情监测、智慧城市、公共卫生与健康等成为新的应用增长点。

  在公众地理信息服务方面,位置服务、汽车导航、教育、娱乐、咨询等信息服务业正在启动;百度地图、腾讯地图已提供较为完善的地图服务,天地图公共平台不仅服务于大众地理信息服务,而且通过公用接口,为部门和行业的地理信息应用提供了支撑,实现了一种云服务体系。

  三、本学科国内外研究进展比较

  地理信息系统是20世纪60年代起源于美国、80年代初引进中国的一项技术,经历了初期的技术主导、科学引导、服务牵引的三个不同的发展时期,当今以发展成为融科学、技术与服务于一体的综合科学技术领域。综合当前国内外研究进展和发展态势,我国地图学与地理信息系统总体发展进入国际先进行列,中美两国将主导国际地理信息系统的发展。

  (一)基础理论研究方面

  美国率先在国际上开展地理信息系统基础理论研究,倡导了地理本体论、空间关系语言、空间大数据库、空间数据质量可视化等基础理论研究,特别是在1992年提出了地理信息科学发展的基本思路。ESRI为了促进其软件的发展,与美国多个大学合作,部署了系列的关于地理空间分析的项目,有效地提升了地理空间分析算法的效率等。

  与美国相比,我国地理信息系统的基础理论研究起步较晚,早期的研究主要侧重于基本的空间数据模型和空间分析、空间数据质量与地图综合等方面。近期在国家的支持下,有效地开展空间抽样与内插、空间分析与数据挖掘、系统建模与综合模拟、空间数据不确定性与可信度理论等研究。特别是黎夏等地理元胞自动机与智能体的结合、裴韬等时空点过程异常模式的识别与提取、王劲峰等空间无偏估计、岳天祥等高曲面建模、史文中及童小华等空间数据不确定性模型与可信度理论、王树良等数据场的空间数据挖掘等方面,取得了重大突破,得到国际同行的高度认可。

  中美两国的GIS基础理论方法研究均在GIS的前沿方向上共同发展。同时,我们认识到在高质量的论文发表等方面,还存在一定的差距;国家的基础研究的科研考核体系有待进一步改进,促进需要长期研究的核心基础理论的重大突破。

  (二)核心技术与软件系统方面

  我国地理信息系统技术走过了引进、消化、吸收和再创新的发展过程。在国家科技计划的支持下,国产化软件的研发进入一个新的阶段,通过关键计划的协同攻关和综合集成等,催生出我国第一代GIS软件,如MapGIS、SuperMap、GeoStar、InterReal等,SuperMap和MapGIS自主品牌的GIS基础软件已经占据了国内市场的60%以上,并开始走向国际市场。与国际先进的GIS基础软件ArcGIS相比,我国的GIS基础软件在可靠性、稳定性等方面,还存在一定的差距,对于超大型应用系统的支持能力还不能全部满足要求,国际市场的竞争力还比较薄弱。

  在云计算、物联网等兴起和发展的新时期,我国GIS迎来了跨越发展的机会,与美国同步启动了面向大数据和云服务的新一代GIS软件的研发,并在关键技术上取得突破。例如,成功研发出我国首款高安全级的空间数据管理系统BeyonDB,高性能GIS平台gDOS和HiGIS也已初步成型。

  (三)行业应用与地理信息服务方面

  我国GIS的应用与世界同步,进入了地理信息服务的时代。我国的百度、腾讯等大型互联网公司均提供免费得地图服务;国家大剧院、首都国际机场等大型公共场所将室内定位与GIS结合,推出了室内地理信息服务。可以预见,在未来的五年,GIS将实现室内外一体化的地理信息服务体系,与国际处于同步发展阶段,并处于以知识化服务为核心的发展起点。

  四、本学科发展趋势和展望

  经过五十多年的发展,地图学与地理信息系统进入了一个以地理信息服务为核心的发展阶段。海量数据动态接入、综合管理、融合处理、智能分析、个性化制图与知识共享等成为研究的重点与热点,经济社会发展、公共卫生与健康、社交网络与虚拟空间混合等成为新的应用领域,以地理信息为核心、牵动遥感与导航定位的地理空间信息产业正处于蓬勃发展的新时期。

  (一)新地理信息时代与泛在空间信息体系

  运用空间与位置的观点将各种信息基于空间化进行集成,并在统一的时空域内对信息进行处理、加工和分析等,为解决复杂的空间决策等问题提供了新的视角和途径,共同构成了一个泛空间信息体系。

  (二)GIS体系向过程化、网络化和集成化方向发展

  GIS的体系将从“数据+空间格局”向“模型+空间过程”方向发展,“数据编码+数据集成管理”将和“模型库+空间过程模拟”有机结合,实现数据、模型、系统的一体化和智能化。新型的计算机硬件、软件体系、网络技术等的发展,推动着当代GIS技术的快速更新和发展,WebGIS、云GIS是GIS的重要发展方向,以服务为理念的GIS将成为未来地理信息应用的重要方式。

  (三)分布式海量空间数据管理系统为重要基石

  针对分布式海量空间数据的数据库管理技术开始出现并迅速发展,并成为大型GIS平台空间数据管理的基础。当前分布式海量空间数据管理系统要求能够对空间数据实现一体化存储、组织与管理,而面对新型计算机硬件体系结构下出现的新问题,对传统的空间数据管理技术提出了新的挑战。

  (四)地理信息服务成为发展趋势

  通过地理信息服务来实现地理信息、地理信息处理与分析功能模型、地理信息系统软件等的资源化利用是地理信息应用的发展潮流,也是新一代GIS技术发展的必然趋势。基于GeoWeb的各种地理信息服务正在成为Web环境的基础性组成设施,下一代互联网提供了强大、可伸缩的网络基础环境,将改变很多基于互联网的应用,为解决地理信息服务在处理能力和性能方面的瓶颈提供了新的机遇。

  (五)地理信息云计算占据前沿

  在云计算技术的支持下,用户可以实现按需使用GIS。用户不需要知道数据、软件来自何处,可随时、随地获得计算能力(资源、信息、服务、知识),用户可以把各种资源如地理数据、应用软件、硬件设备都放在云计算平台的统一管理中,进一步强化地理分析、处理能力。同时,云计算服务可靠、安全,每个地理信息应用部署都与物理平台无关,通过虚拟平台进行管理,以及对地理信息应用进行扩展、迁移和备份等各种操作。云计算平台对全球化的地理空间信息存储、检索、分析和操作提出了新的机遇和挑战。

Geography

2.1 Preface

Geographical Information System (GIS) was enlightened in the 1960s. It is developed to acquire, process, and analyze geospatial information and data; an interdiscipline combining geographical science, survey science, information science and other disciplines. As the foundation of GIS, cartography is a long lasting subject that has almost equal history of human culture. Cartography and GIS have been categorized as the subordinate of Geography in China. This report focuses on the research development and the overall situation of Cartography and GIS in the last two years, and includes their summarized development for the past five years. With close relation and deep penetration, Cartography and GIS can be taken as the two aspects of one discipline which will be further introduced and discussed in this report.

2.2 Recent Progress

As a frontier subject, the development of Cartography and GIS is driven by the science and technology planning and market demand. With the support from National Natural Science Fund Committee, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Education and others, the theoretical research of Geographical Information Science has made considerable developments. Also with support from Ministry of Science, the Development and Reform Commission, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and others, our domestic GIS software platform is improving and the brand recognition of GIS software is increasing, indicating a booming in the GIS industry. The GIS education in China has successively provided professionals to scientific research and industry.

2.2.1 Geographic Information Expression and Management

Geographic Information Expression is the basic subject of GIS research. The most outstanding research focuses on three dimensional (3D) representation and modeling, especially represented by Zhu Qing’s and Lv Guonian’s research team. Liu Gang etc. have presented a 3D spatial database model combining the spatial and the semantic relationship for the integrated management of aboveground and underground features. It supports various storage environments. Based on the ordinary 3D spatial model research, Yuan Linwang etc. have introduced the conformal geometric algebra (CGA) into GIS 3D spatial modeling, and effectively solve the inconsistency between the multi-expression of spatial data models and the analyzing frameworks, creating a new methodology.

Effectively manage large volumes of unstructured geospatial information is the basic direction of GIS research. Chen Rongguo and his research team, based on a systematically analysis of the relational database management system, have proposed a method to expand spatial data model inside the relational database kernel. This solves the eight kernel technical problems: high accuracy spatial database system space identification; spatial data storage; spatial indexing; spatial operators; space affairs; spatial query optimization; spatially distributed processing; and secured data space access. They have successfully built the first high security geospatial database management system in China. Wu Lixin etc. have promoted the concept of Earth System Spatial Grid (ESSG). Meanwhile, based on the Sphere Degenerated-Octree Grid (SDOG), they have designed a SDOG-ESSG model that satisfies the eight basic requirements.

2.2.2 Geographical Information Analysis and Simulation

Geographical simulation system is a technology used to simulate, predict, optimize and display complex systems. Li Xia etc. have designed the Geographical Simulation and Optimization System (GeoSOS) to simulate, predict, and optimize geography patterns. In digital terrain analysis, Tang Guoan and his team have proposed new concepts and discussed the terrain index scale effect and scale deduction, the terrain information of digital elevation model, terrain scale similarity measurement methods, and built the parallel computing analysis platform Spatial sampling and interpolation is a basic feature of GIS. Wang Jinfeng etc. have developed the spatial sampling theory system for heterogeneous land surface, and proposed the Trinity Theory for spatial sampling. The theory includes the Modeling Spatial Means of Surfaces (MSN), the Biased Sentinel Hospital based Area Disease Estimation Model (B-SHADE), the Single Point Area Estimation (SPA) Model, and the Sandwich Model for heterogeneous surface interpolation. For typical spatial data interpolation and modeling, Yue Tianxiang and his team, based on the fundamental theorem of surfaces and combined with Gauss-Codazzi equations, have generated numerical methods by applying uniform orthogonal mesh on the simulation region, and build the High Accuracy Surface Model (HASM).

Marine geographic information modeling and analysis is fundamental in marine geographic information system. Zhou Chenghu, Su Zhenfen etc., have proposed a spatial and temporal modeling strategy based on the classification and abstraction of processing object, and designed a raster-based spatio-temporal hierarchical data model. They successfully applied it in marine spatio-temporal process database system analysis.

In spatial data mining and knowledge discovery, Pei Tao, Zhou Chenghu etc. have established the theoretical model and methodology to apply multi-scaling decomposition for any spatio-temporal point process data.

2.2.3 Map and Geospatial Visualization

Adaptive visualization is fundamental in mapping research. Wang Yingjie, Chen Yufen, Ai Tinghua etc. have explored the theory of adaptive visualization mapping, and proposed a method for applying variable scaled design, map features and layered details on small screen and navigation. The virtual geographic environment aims to achieve the simulation and expression of the geographical environment, and change the traditional methodology. Gong Jianhua, Lin Hui, You Xiong etc. have proposed a theoretical framework for virtual geographic environment research, and developed the virtual battlefield analysis system. Lv Guonian etc. have discussed the overall framework and function for geographic analysis based virtual geographic environment. Li Deren, Gong Jianya etc., analyzing from three different aspects: the basic principle, the technical content, and the expression form, have proposed the geospatial information 3D visualization technology based on graphics and image information. They have also developed the massive visualization software GeoGlobal.

2.2.4 GIS Technology and Software

The fundamental application software is important for GIS industry. Since 1987 the first international version of ArcInfo was introduced to China, the GIS technology has made rapid progress. Experienced the import, digestion, absorption and re-innovation, the domestic GIS software have gradually turned into strong brands. They are widely applied in national resources, surveying, environmental protection, infrastructure management, and other industries, and entered into the international market. The success of domestic GIS software platform strengthen the GIS software research and development level in China, making it comparatively equal to the international standard, and help to enhance the national strategic security.

2.2.5 Geographical Information Services and Applications

GIS is firstly applied in the resources and environmental information system in China, making it relatively mature. The National Water Information System, the National Soil Environmental Quality Information System, the National Land and Resources Map have been put into services. Geographical conditions monitoring, smart city, public health and hygiene have become new focuses. The location service, navigation, education, entertainment, consulting and more information service industries are emerging. The Baidu Map and Tencent Map have been providing the public with comprehensive services. In a new era of big data and cloud services, building a new GIS system for the integrated “data-model-software”, promoting personalized map services and the application of spatial knowledge, give us the opportunity to interactively develop cartography and GIS.

2.3 Comparative Study

GIS emerged during the 1960s in the United States (US), and was introduced into China in the 1980s. The US leaded in the fundamental theory studies in GIS. The US has carried out GIS basic theoretical research, advocacy geographical ontology, spatial relational language, large spatial database, and spatial data quality visualization. ESRI has cooperated with several universities to establish a variety geospatial analysis programs. Compared with the US, the GIS theoretical research started late in China. We have effectively started GIS researches in recent years, including spatial sampling and interpolation, spatial analysis and data mining, system modeling and simulation, spatial data uncertainty and accuracy analysis. Now, the GIS research in China and US are all focusing on the frontier subjects.

The GIS software and technology in China are moving on a new stage. The SuperMap and MapGIS series have occupied 60% of domestic market and entered into international market. GIS in China is facing opportunities to expand. We have synchronized with the US to create new generations of GIS software for big data and cloud service. The establish of the first high security spatial database management system BeyonDB, the initialization of two high performance GIS platforms gDOS and HiGIS, shows that GIS has successfully developed in China.

2.4 Further Development and Perspective

After 50 years of development, Cartography and GIS have entered into a development stage focusing on geographical information service. Massive dynamic data access, integrated management, integration processing, intelligent analysis, personalized graphics and knowledge sharing become popular research directions. The emerging of a new era of GIS and spatial information system, the development of GIS towards processing, networking and integration, the development of distributive massive spatial data management system, the geographical information services, and the cloud based geographical information calculation, have become the frontier and trend of GIS development in China.