学科发展研究(2012-2013)分述
电气工程
2014年04月02日

  一、引言

  电气工程学科是研究电磁场及其变化规律、电磁能量转换与控制、电磁场与物质及生命相互作用的学科,与信息科学、系统工程、自动控制与智能科学、材料科学、生命科学、新能源应用等领域结合紧密,是一门历史悠久、积淀深厚的科学。在美国工程院与30多家美国专业工程协会历时半年共同评出的20世纪对人类社会生活影响最大的20项最伟大的工程技术中,“电气化”位列首位。没有电气化,一切科技成果和经济成就皆无从谈起。

  近年来我国电气工程领域的科研工作者积极适应学科布局、科研体制和行业发展方面的新变化,努力探索电气工程学科与其他学科交叉融合的发展之路,在高速铁路、特高压输电、可再生能源综合利用、电工新材料、电磁新技术、节能新技术等方面攻克了诸多关键核心技术,取得了一大批重要乃至具有战略性意义的科研成果。但相比国际一流水平,特别在原创性技术方面,还存在明显差距,在应对新的能源革命和科技革命方面还没有足够的技术储备。我们的原始创新能力和核心技术突破不足,跟踪模仿较多,引领性的创新贡献偏少;多学科交叉研究和基础前瞻性研究布局不够;在国际上有重大影响的尖端人才和研究团队偏少;先进的试验研究平台缺少,科学仪器自主创新研发能力薄弱,还缺乏对某些盲从性跟踪研究的判断力。

  下面从电气工程学科下设的五个二级学科,即电机与电器、电力系统及其自动化、高电压与绝缘技术、电力电子与电力传动和电工理论与新技术等五个方面,简要总结了我国电气工程领域近五年的新观点、新理论、新方法、新技术、新成果,以及国际上电气工程学科最新研究热点、前沿和趋势,对国内外学科的发展状态进行了比较评析,并据此提出未来5年我国电气工程学科的战略需求、发展趋势及发展策略。

  二、本学科近年来最新研究进展

  (一)电机与电器

  电机与电器学科的发展历史非常悠久,随着计算机技术、电力电子技术及控制技术的发展,其学科内涵与外延都发生了很大的变化。电机与电器的研究和发展逐渐从传统电机和电器转变为以电机电器为核心;包括电力电子、数字控制和一些特殊关键应用在内的电机与电器系统,乃至机电能量与信息变换的集成系统,电机与电器学科已与电子信息技术和计算机技术交叉融合,密不可分。

  近年来电力电子技术、计算机与现代控制技术的发展推动了电机技术的进步。直流电机正逐渐被采用电子换向器的无刷直流电机所取代,变频调速装置与矢量控制技术的应用从根本上改变了感应电机的特性,而稀土永磁材料、电力电子器件与现代控制技术的应用对于同步电机的发展影响更为显著,出现了一系列新型特种同步电机。现代电机技术的发展特点是电机与控制系统的紧密结合,电机已经由传统的单机装置拓展成为电机系统,决定电机运行性能的控制方式也成为电机系统的重要组成部分。

  特高压、超大容量电力变压器符合我国能源格局及电网建设的需要,近5年我国在变压器设计分析技术、绝缘设计技术、主要材料性能研究等主要方面加大科研投入,取得了一批科研成果,支撑了国内变压器技术的升级。我国的特高压、超大容量电力变压器一直在世界变压器行业处于引领地位,代表了电力变压器在超大容量方面的国际最高水平。

  电器是电能输送和使用的重要电气设备,电器学科的发展和我国电力系统及用户配电控制使用紧密相关,智能电网涵盖发电、输电、配电、调度、变电、用电等各个环节,需要智能化电器和先进传感技术支持。智能电网建设以及用电总体水平的提高,为智能电器带来了很好的发展机会,有力推进智能电器的技术发展和应用,同时也带来了巨大的挑战。电器学科近年主要研究内容有开关电弧、电接触、退化机理和寿命分析、电器运行控制和状态信息融合等相关技术,传统电器向着节能、小型、高可靠性等方面不断发展。

  (二)电力系统及其自动化

  作为能源产业链的重要环节,电力系统已成为国家能源综合运输体系的重要组成部分,也是实现国家能源战略思路和布局的重要平台。新能源革命正在引起电源结构的重大变化,一方面火电努力实现清洁化高效发电,另一方面大力发展可再生能源发电等安全、清洁替代能源。由于风能和太阳能等可再生能源发电具有随机性和间歇性特点,可变电源的大规模并网运行,对电气设备产生巨大影响,甚至引起了整个电力系统规划和运行的革命性变化。现有电网尚不能满足接纳大规模风能和太阳能发电的技术要求,这已成为制约我国可再生能源大规模快速发展的主要瓶颈。提高电网对大规模新能源接入的适应性和安全保障能力,已成为日益紧迫的任务。

  (三)高电压与绝缘技术

  高电压与绝缘技术学科既是一个有着良好基础的传统学科,又是一个有活力的交叉学科。近年来,随着国家特高压输电工程和智能电网的建设以及国防技术的发展,高电压与绝缘技术学科在电力设备绝缘和结构设计,电力设备智能化、交直流线路电磁环境影响和极端条件下电力设备相关技术方面取得了一系列的成果。基于高电压技术的应用研究,拓展形成了脉冲功率技术在Z箍缩、脉冲放电技术等新的研究方向;建设和发展高电压技术在环保、生物及医学等领域中的应用这一全新的研究方向,采用高电压技术解决环保和生物及医学等领域的重大问题。

  (四)电力电子与电力传动

  电力电子与电力传动学科是电气工程学科的一门新兴学科,也是一门交叉型很强的学科,它与半导体器件、绝缘材料、信号处理以及控制技术的发展紧密相关。电力电子技术产业覆盖了几乎所有关系国民经济发展和国家长久安全的国家关键技术领域,如材料、装备制造、信息和通讯、航空和运输、能源和环境等,已经成为社会发展和国民经济建设中的关键基础性技术之一。近年来,我国电力电子学科有了长足的发展,相应的电力电子元器件研制和生产、装置拓扑和结构、以及在其主要的应用领域,如电机变频调速、工业供电电源、新能源发电、电力牵引、电力输配电和绿色照明等方面都取得了飞跃发展。

  (五)电工理论与新技术

  作为电气工程学科中的基础性学科,电工理论与新技术学科没有明确的学科界限。从电工理论来讲,主要包含电磁场理论及应用、电路(电网络)理论及应用等;从电工新技术来讲,主要包括超导应用、电磁发射、磁悬浮、等离子体、现代电磁测量等非常广泛的学科方向。交叉学科是电气工程学科发展的一个重要特色,也是未来电气工程学科发展的主要方面。近年来,我国在电工理论与新技术学科的科研成果主要体现在电路与电磁场、超导电工学、生物电磁学、电力储能技术、其它电工新技术、超磁致伸缩材料应用技术、磁性液体应用技术、电磁声发射技术和无线电能传输技术等几个方面。

  三、本学科国内外研究进展比较

  纵观我国电气工程学科近年来的发展,虽然取得了很大的进步,特别是在电气工程学科的传统领域取得了一大批重要乃至战略性的研究开发成果,有力地支撑了国民经济建设和发展,但与国际一流水平还存在明显的差距,特别是在应对新的能源革命和新的科技革命方面显得没有足够的准备,突出表现在以下几个方面:原始创新能力和核心技术突破不足,跟踪模仿较多,引领性创新贡献偏少;多学科交叉研究和基础前瞻性研究布局不够;在国际上有重大影响的尖端人才和研究团队偏少;先进的研究试验平台缺少,科学仪器自主创新研发能力薄弱。

  (一)电机与电器

  近年来,我国电机学科在能源、交通、装备和国防领域,以及前沿技术方面取得了长足进步,但相比发达国家,依然存在诸多不足:跟踪性研究居多,高水平原创性研究较少;重复性研究较多,有特色的深入研究不足;理论性分析较多,系统性试验研究不够,产学研结合不够。另一方面,攻克工业领域的电机节能关键技术、提高我国电机能效指标迫在眉睫。目前,我国电机效率平均比国外低3-5个百分点,系统效率比国外先进水平低10-20个百分点。近年来,我国变压器行业立足自主创新,并借鉴国外先进技术,技术创新能力及产品设计制造水平不断实现超越。我国已成为世界上变压器种类最齐全、产量最大的国家,变压器类产品的技术性能和质量均处于世界领先水平。

  我国电器学科整体实力得到了跨越式发展,产品质量得到大幅提升,缩小了与国外先进水平的差距,具有广阔的发展前景。但同时我们也应看到,我国在相关领域的基础研究与国外先进水平相比还存在较大差距,自主创新能力还有待提高,研发高性能、高可靠性、小型化、智能化,功能齐全且适应智能电力系统发展要求的新一代电器产品必要且迫切。

  (二)电力系统及其自动化

  目前,世界范围内新能源革命方兴未艾。作为新能源发展的关键支撑技术——智能电力系统引起了世界各国的高度关注,各国纷纷结合自身国情制定了战略发展框架,提出了相关的技术标准和战略规划,并搭建相关研究平台,力争掌握主动权。针对智能电力系统技术,美国和欧洲已经形成强大的研究群体,研究内容覆盖发电、输电、配电和用电等环节,通过技术与具体业务的有效结合使智能电力系统建设切实发挥作用,最终达到提高运营绩效的目的。与发达国家相比,我国电网线损率水平近年来一直保持着一定的差距,说明我国输、配电网的运行经济性仍有待提高。从供电可靠性来看,我国供电可靠性水平与发达国家尚有较大差距。

  (三)高电压与绝缘技术

  近些年来,通过发展特高压输电技术,有力地促进了我国高电压与绝缘技术的发展,在交直流输电的电磁干扰和防护、有机绝缘子和恶劣环境下输电线路故障形成机理和防护措施、大容量开断技术和关键电力设备结构设计等方面达到国际先进水平。在高能量脉冲功率技术、高参数脉冲磁体技术和加速器复杂电磁场设计等方面,取得了快速进步,部分研究成果打破了国外垄断,达到国际先进水平。在新型绝缘材料研究方面,我国紧跟国际热点取得了系列科研成果。在纳米复合电介质的大规模制备与应用,环境友好固体绝缘材料和新型智能材料方面,与国外相比还存在差距。在电力设备状态诊断和维护方面,设备智能化的研究及推广应用方法处于国际的领先水平,但在检测方法上缺少原创。

  (四)电力电子与电力传动

  我国电力电子技术与国际发达国家相比,无论在器件和装置的设计水平和产品质量,还是器件及装置的生产力形成和国家产业扶持都有很大不同。在电力电子器件方面,国内大部分生产企业还停留在中低端器件的制造上,与发达国家有竞争力的厂家不多,距离国际先进水平还有很长的路要走。在电力电子装置和应用方面,有很多应用电力电子的重大装备在我国尚不掌握关键或核心技术,甚至整个装备的设计和制造能力为空白,我国因此不可避免地处于受制于人的境地。近五年来,我国电力电子学科及技术虽发展非常快速,但依然落后于国际先进水平,也跟不上我国国民经济发展的需要,特别是还面临着国外产品冲击的严峻形势。

  (五)电工理论与新技术

  电工理论与新技术广泛涉及到电路与电磁场的基础理论、以及电气工程学科与其他学科的交叉领域和极端电磁环境等,不仅内容丰富,也是电气工程学科最具活力的研究方向。目前,我国电路和电磁场基础理论研究整体水平在国际上大约处于中上游位置,与国际先进水平相比,我们最大的差距是缺乏有重要影响的原始创新。超导电工学方面,目前我国超导电力技术的研究开发及其产业化链的雏形已经初步形成,总体上处于世界先进水平。生物电磁学方面,国际上的相关研究重视多领域专家的共同协商探讨,我国从事相关研究的单位不少,但未充分组织起来,知识背景相对单薄,研究未取得突破性进展。电力储能技术方面,大规模储能技术在全球还处在发展初期,发达国家和我国都在探索各类储能技术适宜的应用场合,以及进一步改进技术方向和技术路线。电动汽车方面,我国在电机本体、驱动器和控制策略等关键技术研发方面与国外基本同步,自主研发的各类电机系统关键技术指标均在相同功率等级下达到国际先进水平,但在科研生产方面与国外先进水平仍存在一定的差距。

  四、本学科发展趋势及应对策略

  (一)学科发展趋势

  根据学科和产业的发展与需求,电机与电器学科重点发展趋势包括高效节能电机系统、电气牵引电机系统、用于新能源发电电机系统、特殊应用的电机系统、特种电机的发展、智能电器的发展和智能变压器等几个方面。

  目前,电力系统呈现两种发展趋势,一是以“特高压”技术为代表,建设新一代超大规模系统,先进输电与电网安全、电力系统稳定控制与信息化,以及柔性输电技术成为核心研究方向;二是以新能源和微电网技术为代表,构建就地发电就地消费的智能化供电单元。

  高电压与绝缘技术学科领域的发展趋势主要包括:直流输电设备的绝缘结构设计、状态检测和寿命诊断、高压输电与电磁环境兼容技术、脉冲功率及等离子体技术和高电压技术新应用等方面。

  电力电子与电力传动发展的总体趋势是半导体开关器件芯片将向大容量、高耐压、高频化、低损耗方向发展;系统装置向高可靠性、高性能、集成化、绿色化方向发展;系统控制向数字化、零电磁污染和强电磁兼容方向发展。

  电工理论与新技术的主要发展趋势是:电路与电磁场方面需要研究更加复杂的电磁场理论问题;超导电力技术向更高电压等级和更大容量、以及原理多样化和功能集成化方向发展;生物电磁效应研究方面值得深入研究复杂电磁环境的检测技术和对环境和健康的影响;储能技术方面值得关注的前沿储能电池类型(主要有钠离子电池、锂硫电池、锂空气电池、如镁基电池等多价态离子电池)。

  (二)应对策略

  电气工程学科是国民经济和工业发展的基础学科,也是我国装备制造行业发展的关键。电气工程学科及其技术已日益广泛地应用或渗透到能源、环境、制造业、交通运输业中,特别是与国家安全和国防有关的先进能源技术、激光技术、空天技术、高档数控机床与基础制造技术等许多重要领域。

  当前面临本学科的快速发展、行业加速更新换代、国际竞争激烈的发展形势,建议在电气工程学科及其行业发展布局、支持原则、优先发展重点以及实施措施方面加强电气工程学科应用基础研究,建立公共的电气标准及装置检测试验平台,产业化中的关键技术问题研究,电气学科专用应用标准研究,围绕国家需求重点需求开展重点研究和加强产学研的紧密合作。电气工程学科是一个多学科、多行业的集合体,各个方面必须有一个很好的协调和合作,建议组织高层次学科和产业的协调机构,加强沟通、密切合作。

Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineering discipline considers the generation of electrical energy, transmission, transformation, use, control, management and so on as the main object, closely combined with information science, computer technology, electronic technology, automatic control, system engineering, new energy and new materials application, which is a science with a long history and deep accumulation. As the national first-level discipline, the electrical engineering is one of the core subjects in the field of modern science and technology, and an indispensable key discipline in the modern high-tech fields.

Seen from the self-development of electrical engineering discipline, the subject research and the development of the industry dynamics have not been weakened over time. The electrical disciplines run to today, which has become a root of many branch disciplines in the basic subjects of math, physics, chemistry and so on, and blend in the field of materials, information, life and other disciplines. As the global gradually formed the dominate field as the center of the environment, energy, material, biological and information. The development direction of electrical engineering disciplines has reflected the main characteristics by the diversification of the primary energy, the flexibility of the energy conversion and the informatization of power transmission control, as well as the miniaturization of the large equipment. The electrical engineering has five secondary disciplines, namely, Electric Machine and Electrical Appliances, High Voltage and Insulation Technology, Power Electronics and Power Drives as well as Theory and New Technology of Electrical Engineering. In recent years, our country scientific workers in various fields actively explore the integration development ways of the electrical engineering discipline and emerging discipline, interdiscipline, overcome a number of key core technology, and achieve the fruitful research results.

12.1 The latest research progress for electrical engineering discipline in recent years

With the development of the computer technology, power electronic technology and control technology, the connotation and denotation electric of machines and electric apparatus disciplines have changed a lot. The research and development of electric machines and electric apparatus gradually translate from the traditional electric machines and electric apparatus to the core, including electric machines and electric apparatus system inner power electronics, digital control and some special key applications, and even the integration system of electromechanical energy and information conversion, the electric machines and electric apparatus disciplines has inseparably intersected with the electronic information technology and computer technology.

As an important part of the energy industry chain, the electrical power system has become an important part of national energy integrated transport system. New energy revolution causes a major change in the power structure, and the existing power system can’t get enough for the technical requirements of the large scale wind power and solar power generation, which has become the main bottleneck of restricting our country large-scale renewable energy rapid development. The smart power grids is the important platform of implementing the new energy strategy and optimizing energy resources allocation, and the security, economy and environmental friendliness are three main themes for the development of Power System and Automation.

High Voltage and Insulation Technology discipline is not only a good fundamental tradition disciplines, but also a vibrantly interdisciplinary discipline. In recent years, around the national ultra-high voltage power transmission project and smart grid construction and national defense technology development put forward higher requirements to the power equipment, High Voltage and Insulation Technology subject carries out the extensive research, and has made a series of high-end scientific research achievements in power equipment insulation and structure design, intelligent power equipment, AC/DC electromagnetic environment influence, and the related power equipment technology under extreme conditions.

Power electronics and power drives discipline is an emerging discipline of electrical engineering, also a strong chiasmatypy discipline. Power electronic technology industry covers almost all of the related national key technology between the national economic development and national security for a long time, and has become one of the key basic technology in social development and national economic construction. In recent years, our country’s power electronics disciplines has made considerable development, the corresponding power electronic technology has made the leap development in the development and production of the components and parts, device topology and structure and the main application field.

As the basic disciplines in the electrical engineering discipline, electrical theory and new technology have no clear disciplinary boundaries. The electrician theory mainly includes the theory and application of electromagnetic field, the theory and application of circuit (electric network), etc. The new electrician technique mainly includes a wide range of subjects direction of superconducting application, electromagnetic emission, magnetic levitation, plasma, the modern electromagnetic measurement etc. In recent years, our country’s scientific research results in Theory and New Technology of Electrical Engineering subject mainly reflects in the electric circuit and electromagnetic field, superconductivity electrotechnics, bioelectromagnetics, electricity energy storage technology, other new technology of electrical engineering, the application technology of ultra-magnetostriction material, the application technology of magnetic liquid, the electromagnetic acoustic emission technology and wireless transmission technology.

12.2 The comparison of research progress for the electrical engineering discipline at home and abroad

Throughout the development of electrical engineering discipline in China in recent years, although it has made a number of the important and strategic significance research and development, effectively support the national economic construction and development, it exists obvious disparity compared with the international first-class level. It is especially not enough prepare to deal with the new energy revolution and the revolution of science and technology, outstanding performance in the following aspects: the original innovation ability and the lack of core technology breakthrough, more tracking imitate, fewer of the innovative contribution; multidisciplinary cross research and prospective study layout is not enough; less cutting-edge talent and the team of having a significant impact on the international; lack of advanced research experimental platform, weak scientific instruments for independent innovation ability.

12.3 The development tendency and coping strategy of electrical engineering subjects

According to the development and the demand of the discipline and industry, the prioritized development direction of the electrical machines and electronic apparatus disciplines in the future time is Energy-efficient electric machine system, electric machine system in the electric traction, electric machine system using new energy power generation system, the electric machine system of the special application, the development of special electric machine, smart appliances and intelligent transformer, etc.

The power system appears two growing trends: one is in behalf of extra-high voltage technology, building a new generation of very large scale system, the advanced transmission and grid safety, the stability control and informatization of the power system, as well as the flexible electric power transmission technology are turn to the core research direction; second is in behalf of new energy and micro grid technology, building the intelligent power supply unit of local electricity generation and local consumption.

Development trend in the field of High Voltage and Insulation Technology subject mainly includes the insulation structure design of the DC transmission equipment, state detection and life diagnosis, high voltage power transmission and electromagnetic environment research, impulse power and plasma technology, the state diagnosis maintenance of electric power equipment and the new application of high voltage technology and so on several aspects.

The overall trend in the development of power electronics and power drives is that the power electronics device chip will work on the large capacity, high voltage, high frequency, low loss direction development, System device work on the high reliability, high performance, integration, green development direction; System control will work on digital, zero electromagnetic pollution and high electromagnetic compatibility development direction.

The main development trends in Theory and New Technology of Electrical Engineering are researching some new and more sophisticated electromagnetic theory problems, the superconducting power technology work on a higher voltage levels and greater capacity, the principle diversification and functional integration.

In bioelectricity magnetic effect research, it further studies the detesting technology of AC/DC transmission lines, maglev train and so on other related complex electromagnetic environment, and the influence on environment and health. In energy storage technology, it develops the next generation all solid state lithium ion batteries and carbon nanotube battery, focusing on sodium ion batteries and other frontier batteries.

Electrical engineering discipline and technology has been increasingly widely used or infiltrated in energy and environment, manufacturing, transportation, especially in many important areas related to national security and defense. Suggestions in electrical engineering and its industry layout, the support principle, the priority development emphasis and implementing measures, considering the following aspects: strengthening the application basic research of the electrical engineering discipline, establishing public electrical standards and device test platform, the key technical problems research in the industrialization and the standard research of electrical disciplines special application, carrying out the key research according to national needs key requirements and strengthening the close cooperation of industry-university-research. Electrical engineering is a multidisciplinary, the collection of the multi-industry, various aspects must have a very good coordination and cooperation, advising to organize high-level disciplines and coordination mechanism of the industry, strengthen communication and close cooperation.