学科发展研究(2012-2013)分述
植物保护学
2014年04月01日

  一、引言

  2012-2013年是我国科技、经济和社会发展的战略机遇期,也是落实《国家中长期科学和技术发展规划纲要》的关键时期,我国植物保护领域广大科技工作者在植物保护学科基础和应用基础研究、高新技术研发、关键防御技术开发等方面取得了一系列研究成果,为保障粮食生产实现“十连增”做出了突出贡献。

  二、本学科主要研究进展

  (一)基础研究取得重大进展

  1.植物病毒学

  我国植物病毒学科研究团队率先合作完成了南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒中国分离物SRBSDV的全基因组序列,并明确SRBSDV是斐济病毒属的一个新成员的结论,为开展病害检测、防治提供了重要的理论依据;同时在双生病毒和水稻病毒致病机制、寄主抗性机制、昆虫介体的传毒机制研究上取得显著进展,诠释了作物通过甲基化体系抵御双生病毒侵染及双生病毒通过多种途径逃避作物防御的分子新机制;阐明了水稻矮缩病毒在介体叶蝉体内的传导扩散过程,加深了对病害发生机制以及寄主抗性机制的理解,为利用相关途径开发植物抗病毒新理论和新策略奠定了基础。

  2.植物抗病虫功能基因组学

  在植物抗病机理研究方面,分离和鉴定了一系列水稻白叶枯病、稻瘟病抗病关键基因,为抗病及高产协调的农作物设计育种和病害防控策略提供新思路;深入研究了植物激素、泛素化途径相关蛋白和锌指类蛋白与稻瘟病、水稻白叶枯病抗性的关系、植物基础防卫反应和系统获得性抗性的调控机制、植物表观遗传抗病机制等,为探索抗病品种多样性和合理布局控制作物重大病害提供新理论和新途径;发掘了植物抗褐飞虱基因、寄生蜂源抗虫基因、苏云金芽胞杆菌杀虫基因资源等,为抗虫转基因作物的研发提供了新资源,通过应用高通量测序技术,为获得充足的Bt杀虫基因资源奠定了基础;完成了麦类锈病、作物枯萎病等重要病害病原物及东亚飞蝗、菜蛾、棉蚜等重要害虫的基因组测序工作;分析了小菜蛾的进化地位、感觉相关基因及解毒作用相关基因,揭示了逆转录转座子和复杂的新陈代谢系统在小菜蛾抗药性发展过程中起关键性作用。

  3.昆虫化学生态学

  探明了东亚飞蝗的感受器类型和分布及其超微结构;对棉铃虫和烟青虫雌性成虫前足第五跗节上的的毛状化学感器按照化学感受特征进行了分类,共发现了14个味觉感器;鉴定了多种昆虫的化学感受(包括嗅觉和味觉)蛋白基因序列,分析了部分化学感受蛋白的表达特征,鉴定了其功能;对小麦长管蚜气味结合蛋白OBPs及气味受体OR基因进行克隆,获得7种OBP基因,一个Orco基因;首次揭示了果蝇兴奋性嗅觉中间神经元的电生理特性以及它们与其他神经元的突触连接和作用机制,对深入理解嗅觉编码的神经环路机制具有重要的基础理论意义。

  4.入侵生物学

  探明了入侵亚热带地区的MEAM1烟粉虱能正常生存,可能与其体内超氧化物歧化酶能高效去除高温环境下产生的过多氧自由基密切相关,发现温度和寄主植物发育状态在入侵型烟粉虱与土著种竞争排斥中起重要作用,明确了B烟粉虱对噻虫嗪产生抗性与细胞色素P450s、谷胱甘肽转移酶GSTs和羧酸酯酶过量表达有关;表明Nardonella、Wolbachia等的内生菌变化极有可能影响到稻水象甲的生殖,从而影响其入侵和种群扩张能力;分析鉴定出紫茎泽兰的化感作用物质,对一些农业病原微生物显示较明显的抑制作用;揭示了松材线虫RxLR效应子及其在寄主-病原菌互作中的作用,推测松材线虫在入侵寄主松树的过程中,首先分泌RxLR effectors蛋白,通过抑制寄主的防御反应有利于线虫的入侵;利用真菌介导松材线虫RNAi功能基因分析技术,揭示了daf-3等滞育调控基因对松材线虫发育、繁殖量、脂肪积累等性状的影响效应,为进一步解析松材线虫繁殖-扩散转换的分子机制提供了依据。

  (二)高新技术取得长足发展

  1.植物病毒检测技术

  建立的基于单克隆抗体的20种病毒检测体系在全国多地广泛使用;针对我国马铃薯生产上主要6种病毒利用免疫技术制备病毒抗血清,在国内首家研制成拥有独立自主知识产权的试剂盒,实现了批量生产和大面积推广应用;针对柑橘病毒病害,建立了微量快速核酸模板制备技术和茎尖脱毒效果早期评价技术,解决了短时隔监测果树病毒技术难题,脱毒进程由以往的3年缩短为1年;建立了全套柑橘病毒类病害分子检测技术体系,同时构建了柑桔无病毒三级良繁技术体系,研究成果获2012年度国家科技进步奖二等奖。

  2.植物抗病虫基因工程

  获得了对黄瓜花叶病毒CMV和烟草花叶病毒TMV免疫的转基因烟草,以及能同时抵抗马铃薯Y和X病毒的转基因烟草;通过表达植物的抗病相关基因,提高了植株对禾谷镰孢菌和禾谷丝核菌的抗性;将BoDFN转化花椰菜,表现出对寄生霜霉抗性的增加;过量表达番茄的ERF1基因能够显著的增加番茄果实对黑根霉菌的抗性等。在植物抗虫基因工程方面,农业部依法批准发放了转植酸酶基因玉米“BVLA430101”、转基因抗虫水稻“华恢1号”及杂交种“Bt汕优63”的生产应用安全证书;转cry1Ah基因玉米已进入生产性实验阶段;抗蛴螬转cry8Ha基因玉米已完成中间试验阶段;抗线虫转基因大豆也进入转基因安全评价的环境释放阶段。

  3.昆虫化学生态学

  我国已经鉴定近100种农林昆虫信息素;发现了茉莉酸介导的植物直接和间接防御存在生态适应的平衡现象;首次揭示了茉莉酸信号转导途径在水稻防御不同为害习性害虫中发挥着不同作用,并鉴定了能诱导水稻产生抗虫性的化学激发子。在昆虫与植物互作化合物的开发利用方面,明确了蚜虫报警信息素的主要成分(反)-β-法尼烯在小麦和蔬菜蚜虫控制中已取得很好的效果。

  4.生物防治学

  克隆得到了几种昆虫消化酶抑制剂新基因,表达的蛋白能抑制蚜虫繁殖和生长,转基因烟草植株表现了较好的抗蚜性;已开发出一批生防作用优良的枯草芽胞杆菌菌株,如Bs-916、B908等。Bs-916菌株对多种病原真菌有显著抑制作用,对水稻纹枯病田间防效稳定在60%~81%,已进行农药登记,年使用面积达6.7万hm2;发现壳寡糖可以诱导植物活性氧的暴发,上调茉莉酸合成途径的相关基因,诱导烟草、油菜等植物中的一氧化氮和过氧化氢积累参与抗病信号转导,并且这两者之间具有协同作用;从极细链格孢、稻瘟菌、灰葡萄孢菌、大丽轮枝菌病原真菌中发现了4个激活蛋白PebC1、MoHrip1、PevD1和Hrip1,并对其诱抗机理进行了初步研究;筛选出1株具有较强杀线虫活性的枯草芽胞杆菌新种B16,发现了一批结构多样的天然杀线虫小分子化合物,并开展了部份代谢调控和作用机制研究。

  5.病虫害监测预警技术

  充分利用遥感、地理信息系统和全球定位系统等“3S”技术、分子定量技术、生态环境建模分析和计算机网络信息交换技术,结合各种地理数据,开展系统和科学的分析,在稻飞虱、稻纵卷叶螟、粘虫、蚜虫和马铃薯晚疫病监测预警等方面取得可喜进展。

  (三)关键技术取得重大突破

  1.小麦条锈病菌源区勘界和异地测报技术

  全国小麦锈病和白粉病研究协作组,明确了全国小麦条锈病大区流行的关键因素;系统揭示了条锈菌毒性变异的主要途径,病菌毒性小种的产生和发展是导致品种抗锈性“丧失”的关键;构建了以条锈病菌源基地秋季菌源数量为基础、结合小麦品种布局和气候发生趋势分析的病害发生趋势中长期异地测报技术体系;首次提出“重点治理越夏易变区、持续控制冬季繁殖区和全面预防春季流行区”的分区治理策略,创建了小麦条锈病菌源基地综合治理技术体系。获得了2012年国家科技进步一等奖。

  2.植物病毒病控制技术

  在南方水稻黑条矮缩病、水稻锯齿叶矮缩病、水稻黑条矮缩病和玉米粗缩病防控技术开发和集成研究方面,将物理和生态防治技术、种子处理技术、秧田阻断虫源技术等单项技术与水稻全程免疫防控技术进行有机组装和集成,总结出“虫病兼治、免疫激活、区域治理”的水稻病毒病防控技术。

  3.生物防治技术

  近几年来,获得一批以生物防治技术为核心的研究成果,如:鱼藤酮生物农药产业体系的构建及关键技术集成、细菌农药新资源及产业化新技术新工艺研究、芽胞杆菌生物杀菌剂的研制与应用、十字花科蔬菜主要害虫灾变机理及其持续控制关键技术、水田杂草安全高效防控技术研究与应用等,在植保防灾减灾中发挥了重要作用。并获国家科学技术进步二等奖。

  4.重大入侵生物的检测监测新技术

  研制了重要入侵生物监测新技术,研发了基于PDA的入侵生物野外数据和图像自动采集仪及实时远程传输软件系统;建立了适用于田间调查的入侵生物野外数据采集软件系统;针对局部发生的毁灭性重大入侵害虫苹果蠹蛾、柑橘大实蝇,建立了实时远程监控的信息采集、处理与发布技术体系。

  5.农业生物多样性控制病虫害技术

  构建了品种混栽的技术参数和推广操作技术规程,建立了利用水稻遗传多样性持续控制稻瘟病的理论和技术体系,探索出了一条简单易行的控制稻瘟病的新途径;探明了小麦不同近等基因系品种混合种植有利于降低优势生理小种的出现频率,促进小麦条锈病菌生理小种的稳定性进化;明确了多样性种植控制马铃薯块茎蛾、斑潜蝇、麦长管蚜、甘蔗蓟马及玉米螟的有效种植模式。

  三、本学科国内外主要研究进展比较

  (一)植物病毒学

  国内科学家在病毒分子检测、运动蛋白的功能鉴定、功能基因研究、介体传病毒的作用机制、病毒致病机制等方面的研究水平与国际持平。但在解析病毒基因、病毒小RNA、蛋白及病毒粒子本身如何导致植物病害发生的研究工作方面与国际前沿仍有一定差距。

  (二)植物抗病虫功能基因组学

  我国在抗虫基因工程、病原细菌及卵菌效应蛋白调控植物生理代谢、植物基础防卫反应和系统获得性抗性的调控机制、昆虫基因组学研究等多个领域做出了一流研究成果,多篇论文在Science、Nature等高水平杂志上发表。但与欧美等发达国家相比,在植物抗病虫功能基因组学的整体水平上仍存在较大差距。

  (三)昆虫化学生态学

  在昆虫化学感受特性及分子机理、昆虫信息素的分离和鉴定、植物信息化合物作用机理、行为影响研究等方面,我国与国际差距不大。但在植物信息化合物的调控机理方面与国外研究还存在较大差距。

  (四)生物防治学

  我国天敌昆虫生防技术的集成和大规模应用配套技术整体水平基本达到国际先进水平,但应用的天敌种类和广度较北欧和北美低得多。国际几家大的农化公司已经相继开发出了诱抗剂产品,但我国尚处在开辟市场阶段,还需在应用基础研究和高效制剂创制上加大力度。

  (五)入侵生物学

  我国生物入侵研究在入侵物种种群形成与扩张机制、生态适应与进化机制以及重要入侵物种对土著种的竞争排斥机制与置换效应、预警和监控技术基础等方面取得了突破性的进展和成果。但我国入侵生物的检测和监测手段及其自动化水平尚有待提高,利用转基因技术控制入侵害虫的研究刚刚起步,与国外研究还存在相当大的差距。

  (六)植物病虫害监测预警学

  国际上在农作物生物灾害监测方面,“3S”技术、生态环境建模分析和计算机网络信息交换技术的应用开展了较为深入的研究,并已初步应用于农作物病虫害的监测与治理。我国起步较晚,迫切需要进一步加强这方面的研究工作。

  (七)农业生物多样性控制病虫害技术

  国际上在生态系统服务功能的理论框架、评估技术与方法和案例研究等方面做了较为全面的探索,并已经开始进行生态系统服务功能形成和变化机制及其驱动力的研究。我国在作物多样性控制病虫害基本原理、构建技术体系方面,具有显著的理论和技术创新特色,为解决作物品种单一化造成的病虫害流行难题探索了新途径。

  四、本学科未来发展趋势

  (一)植物病毒学

  结合高通量测序的小RNA分析技术、转录组分析技术、蛋白质组质谱分析技术等新技术,开展介体昆虫—病毒—寄主植物三者间互作关系研究,将是未来植物病毒学科研究的重要内容。

  (二)植物抗病虫功能基因组学

  将以水稻、小麦等重要农作物的病虫害为主要研究对象,综合运用基因组学、转录组学、蛋白质组学、生物信息学等现代生命科学理论,系统开展其基因组与功能基因解析研究,系统深入研究重要农业病虫害的免疫防御、生长发育、抗逆性等生命活动本质的机制。

  (三)昆虫化学生态学

  以家蚕和棉铃虫等为研究对象,系统开展嗅觉和味觉基因挖掘和功能鉴定工作,并深入揭示嗅觉和味觉识别机制,应用转基因技术研究植物与昆虫相互作用的机理,为深入开发重要资源昆虫和控制重要农业害虫的猖獗为害提供理论基础。

  (四)生物防治学

  加强天敌与害虫的互作机制、农田食物网作物—害虫—天敌间的信息网与通讯机制、天敌控害作用的评价方法、寄生蜂的寄生生理生化机理等基础研究;深入开展捕食螨的营养生理与生殖生理研究、人工饲料配方和高效率饲养猎物等规模化生产技术以及大面积释放简易技术等研究;重视植物免疫诱抗剂生物药物的研究与创制,推动生物农药升级换代和推动行业的发展。

  (五)入侵生物学

  建立完整的数据库系统及其信息共享平台,提升我国入侵物种预防、控制与管理水平,逐步开展入侵生物的自动化检测和监测,利用转基因植物有效控制外来入侵生物的为害与传播。

  (六)植物病虫害监测预警学

  利用遥感技术、地理信息系统、全球定位系统、图像识别及分子生物学等技术,实现对植物病虫害整体的、实时的和动态监测和分析,提高我国植物病虫害监测和预警的水平。

  (七)农业生物多样性控制病虫害技术

  从基因、群体、生态到景观四个不同层面进行生物多样性变化与生态系统功能的分析,促进农业生物多样性理论的发展,形成具有中国特色的研发体系。
 

  In the recent two years, under the challenge of crop pests’ outbreak very seriously in the agriculture of China, through large-scale science and technology staffs collaboration research by all sorts of national S&T research programs funds, the discipline of Plant Protection has made a series research progress, new achievements, new approaches, new methodologies and technologies in the theoretical research of basic and applied areas, hi-tech S&D, key forecast and control techniques. The mentioned advancements in plant protection have played an important role in the disaster prevention and mitigation in agriculture, made a tremendous contribution to ensure the grain output increased for the ninth consecutive year, and promoted the development in the discipline of Plant Protection.

  27.1 A great progress has been achieved in the basic research

  The development of the modern bio-sciences, for example, molecular biology and genomics, etc. brought an exuberant vitality to plant protection for the basic research. Focusing on plant virology, plant functional genomics for disease and insect resistance, insect chemical ecology, invasive biology, etc, a significant improvement has been made in basic research capacity of Plant Protection, which has hold a space in the related research area in the world.

  27.1.1 Plant virology

  Through collaborated research, the genome of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) was firstly sequenced, and a conclusion was proven that SRBSDV to be a new specie in Feijin viral family. For geminivirus and rice virus, significant progresses have been made in research of viral pathogenesis, the mechanism of host plant resistance to the virus, and the mechanism of virus transmission by insect vector. A new molecular mechanism was uncovered that the host plant defense to geminivirus through DNA methylation-mediated system, whereas geminivirus escape from the host plant defense through various approaches. The biological process of RDV spreading in body of leafhoppers was illustrated, which is the virus intaken by insect stylet, through food channels (esophagus) to reach the duct of filter chamber, then spreading to neighboring cells, and the other organs of foregut, midgut and hindgut. Several plant antiviral pathways were found to be involved in the virus infection processes.

  27.1.2 Plant functional genomics for disease and insect resistance

  Important and initial achievements have made in the research areas of plant important genes cloning for disease and insect resistance, and the mechanism of plant resistance to diseases and insects. In the mean time, using genomics approach, the genomes data for a series of important plant pathogens and insect pests have been collected, which are basic materials for further research and discovery of the pathogenic or insect caused damage genes.

  27.1.3 Insect Chemical Ecology

  In insect chemical perception mechanisms research field, the types, distribution and ultra-structures of chemosensory sensilla have been verified in Locusta migratoria manilensis, an important migratory pest insect. 14 gustatory sensilla were found locating on the 5th tarsus in the forefoot of female adult of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, and the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta. Many genes encoding chemosensory (including gustatory and olfactory) proteins from various insect groups were identified and some functions of which were verified. 7 odorant binding proteins (OBPs) genes and 1 olfactory co-receptor (Orco) gene were isolated from grain aphid, Sitobion avenae. The electrophysiologic character of the excitatory local interneurons (eLNs) was firstly revealed in fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and as along with their linkage with the axon of other neurons, and functional mechanisms.

  27.1.4 Invasive biology

  Significant progresses and achievements have been made in the following aspects: population formation and spreading, suitability and evolution of the important invasive species, the competition exclusion mechanism of invasive species to native species and the effect of substitution, the impact of biologic invasions on ecosystem structure and function.

  27.2 A rapidly development has been made in hi-tech

  27.2.1 Plant viral detection technology

  In recent years, viral detection technique systems mainly based on immunological technique, Multiple PCR method, LAMP technology, have been developed rapidly. 20 viruses detection technique systems based on monoclonal antibody, have been widely used in many regions of China, which promote the pathogen rapid detection. Armed at 6 main kinds of viruses (PVX, PVY, PVS, PLRV, PVA, PVM) in potato production in China, the detection kits for potato viruses were developed successfully, which is China’s first independent intellectual property rights in the field. For Citrus virus disease detection, a micro-scale and rapid DNA template preparation technology and stem tip virus-flee early effect evaluation techniques were established.

  27.2.2 Plant for disease and insect resistance genetic engineering

  Using genomics, the functional genomics data have been acquired for a series of important plant pathogens and insect pests, which laid the foundations for further exploration of the pathogenic or insect caused damage genes.

  Holding a series of independent intellectual property rights and higher activity insecticidal genes, then armed at the important insect pests of major grain and cash crops, then the new varieties of cotton, maize and rice resistant to insects have been developed.

  27.2.3 Insect chemical ecology

  In the field of identification and application of insect pheromones, so far, nearly 100 kinds of insect pheromones of agricultural and forestry insect were identified in China, which laid a foundation for the practical utilization of the insect pheromones. In the field of plant infochemicals mediating plant-insect (insect pest and beneficial) interactions, a phenomenon was found that an ecological adaptation balance existed in the jasmonic acid (JA) mediated direct and indirect defense. It was the first reveal that JA mediated pathway played the different effects on rice defense system to the different feeding behavior insect pests, and some chemical elicitors have been identified with inducing rice for insect resistance. Using slow releaser techniques, the utilization of plant infochemicals and aphid alarm pheromone E-β-Farnesene to control wheat and vegetable aphids, have achieved very repelled effect.

  27.2.4 Biological Control

  4 new immune proteins, PevD1, MoHrip1 PeaT1 and Hrip1, have been discovered from pathogenic fungus, Verticillium dahliae, Magnaporthe oryzae and Alternaria tenuissima, and the elicitor proteions induce the plant immune system, promote plant resistance to the diseases and improve plant healthy growth.

  27.2.5 Monitoring and forecasting of plant diseases and insect pests

  Taking full advantage of “3S” techniques, including remote sensing-RS, geographic information systems-GIS, and global positioning system-GPS,along with molecular quantitative techniques, ecological environment modeling and computer-based informatics network techniques, and in combination with all sorts of field survey data, such as the historical data of the plant diseases and insect pests, crop composition and distribution, meteorological factors, etc, and also employing spatial analysis, artificial intelligences and simulation models for forecasting and control decision-making of plant diseases and insect pests, the capability of monitoring and forecasting for plant disease and insect pests have been improved to a higher level. A good progress has been made on monitoring and forecasting the outbreak of the rice migratory insect pests (plant hopper, leaf roller), armyworm, wheat disease and insect pests.

  27.3 A great breakthrough has been made in some key technologies

  27.3.1 Wheat strip rust disease forecast technology in remote area

  Some important achievements in wheat strip rust disease (WSRD) forecast technology are as follows: having made clear on the key factors for WSRD epidemiology in large areas; based on the pathogenic population in wheat seedling in autumn in the WSRD pathogenic resource areas, in combination with wheat cultivars distribution and the climatic trend, a long-term monitoring and forecasting technology system for the trend of the disease outbreak in remote area has been constructed. The acquired achievement, titled “Integrated Management of Wheat Stripe Rust”, won the first prize of National Prize for Progress in Science and Technology in 2012.

  27.3.2 Plant virus disease control technology

  Through the control and prevent technologies developing and integrated research on southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus disease, Rice ragged- stunt dwarf virus disease, rice black-streaked dwarf virus disease, maize rough dwarf virus disease, strategies and techniques for viruses management were proposed, integrated with treating both vector-insect and disease, immune activation, regional IPM, and resulted in good control effects.

  27.3.3 Biological control technology

  In recent years, some important achievements have been achieved in the following aspects of biological control, for example, “Establishment industrial system of rotenone bio-pesticide and integration of key techniques” “New resources of bacterial pesticide and its new industrial production techniques” “Study and application of bio-fungicide of Bacillus” “The outbreak mechanism of major insect pests to cruciferous vegetables and their key technology for sustainable management” “The research and application of safe and efficient control technology on weeds in paddy field”, all of which won the National Science and Technological Prize, respectively.

  27.3.4 Some important invasive insect pests detection and monitoring technology

  DNA barcoding technique, and remote comparative analysis system for important invasive insects have been created, which greatly shortened the invasive species monitoring time. Information platform for early warning and detection and monitoring of invasive species has been constructed, thus, indicating the formation of an equipment fitting for large area remote identification and monitoring automatically.

  On generally, in the coming years, the new technologies, based on high-throughput sequencing micro-RNA analysis which companied with high-throughput sequencing technology, transcriptome analysis, proteomic and mass spectrometry, will add some new energy into the development of plant protection basic research.